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Century XI

After an anonymous period, it is only from the 9th century. that, on the remains of a small and depopulated longobard nucleus, Genoa grows fatigued: it begins a phase of expansion of the still recognizable city.

The return of the population, the feverish reconstruction of houses and churches makes it urgent to raise a walled wall that could protect civitas .
Subsequently, in the X century, the establishment of Bishop Theodolfo in the castrum , gives a further start to the new vitality of the city.

The territory around it and between the two valleys of Polcevera (west) and Bisagno (east) appears on a belt of “curie” and “domoculte” before the bishop and then his vassals, who connect, in the immediate suburbs, with the lands of the great monasteries of San Siro and Santo Stefano.

At the level of legal organization, in 958 the diploma granted by King Berengar II gives full legal freedom to the community, guaranteeing the possession of their lands in the form of estate titles. This starts a process that will lead to the end of the X century. to the constitution of the communis companion .

Reducing maritime activity due to the heavy Arab presence along the coast leads to a crisis between the second and third centuries. X and XI leading to the return to agricultural activity and consequently a contrast to the land dominance between viscounts ( pars publica ) and the bishop (in castrum) which tends to monopolize the power of the city. At the same time, there is the emergence of popular classes related to maritime and commercial activities.

The need for general pacification and the establishment of a government comes from the formation of local companions (militar-mercantile organisms) who constitute a communis communion (1099), which lasts four years, welcoming, in addition to the bishop, individuals coming from each class according to their town residence.

nly after the ninth century, after an anonymous period, and through enormous Efforts, Genoa was reborn on the remains of a small and unpopulated Lombard settlement. This marked the beginning of a phase of expansion towards the city that can still be admired today.

The return of the population and the tireless rebuilding of houses and churches created an urgent need for fortified walls capable of protecting the civitas. Later, in the X century, the installation of the bishop Teodolfo in the castrum Roman camp gave further vitality to the city.

The territories around the valleys of Polcevera (west) and Bisagno (east) seem to have been organized in a circuit of “curies” and “domoculte” which belonged first to the bishop and later to his vassals, and were connected to their peripheries with the great monasteries of San Siro and Santo Stefano.

In 958 King Berengario II he was awarded a diploma to the city and granted the population of Genoa with full juridical freedom, guaranteeing them their land in the form of feudal dominions. This initiated a process that, at the end of the X century, brought to the establishment of the compagna communis.

Heavy Arab presence on the coasts caused the severe reduction of marine activities between the X and XI centuries and lead to a crisis that brought back agriculture to Genoa. As a consequence, disputes over feudal dominion arise between the viscounts (pars publica) and the bishop (in the castrum) who tended to monopolize the power of the citizens.

The necessity for a government and for general peace gave rise to district comrades (military-merchant orders), which made up a communist companion (in 1099). These were elected every four years and included, apart from the bishop, individuals of all ranks.

For more information about King Berengar II. Click here.

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